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10.03.2017

Teilnehmer gesucht

Studienteilnehmer (Männer) für Neuro-Studie zur Bewertung von #Selfies auf Facebook gesucht. mehr

21.09.2017

Teilnehmer gesucht

Kernspinstudie zu Allgemeinwissen, Intelligenz und Persönlichkeit. Interessenten (ab 35 Jahren) können sich telefonisch (0234/32 21775) oder per eMail (nkwipem@gmail.com) für die Studie anmelden. mehr

18.12.2017

Tutoren gesucht

Für das Neuroanatomieseminar: Das menschliche Gehirn -  Ein Mal- und Bastelkurs im Sommersemester 2018 suchen wir noch Tutoren zur Betreuung von Seminargruppen. Interessierte Personen können sich gerne persönlich oder per Email (stephanie.lor@rub.de) bei uns melden. Weitere Informationen finden sich hier


Contact

Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Fakultät für Psychologie
AE Biopsychologie
GAFO 05/618
D-44780 Bochum

Phone: +49 234 - 32 28213
Fax: +49 234 - 32 14377

Email: biopsychologie@rub.de
Homepage: http://www.bio.psy.rub.de


News & Views

The Book on the Lateralized Brain is out!

It started with occasional discussions during coffee (“one should finally write a book like that”) and ended, years later, with finally holding this book in hand. The textbook “The Lateralized Brain: The Neuroscience and Evolution of Hemispheric Asymmetries” by Sebastian Ocklenburg & Onur Güntürkün achieves many functions at the same time: It is an entertaining overview of twelve different areas of research on brain asymmetries; each chapter starting with a short story and proceeding with wit and colorful pictures. The book is also a resource for scientists who would like to find a timely overview on different aspects of lateralization with hundreds of references. Last but not least, this book tries to achieve a change of mind in the area of brain asymmetry research. For too long, this field saw itself outside of neurobiology, outside of the animal kingdom, and outside of a serious evolutionary scope. By embedding asymmetry research in these areas, this book works for a kind of science on left-right differences that thrieves for mechanistic explanations of open questions. And in the very end, it was also fun to write it; Sort of.

 

Ocklenburg, S. and Güntürkün, O., The Lateralized Brain: The Neuroscience and Evolution of Hemispheric Asymmetries, London: Academic Press, 2017.

News & Views

The Brains of Reptiles and Birds

Reptiles and birds are a fascinating group of animals that is most critical to understanding the evolution of vertebrate brains. Birds, who are in fact living dinosaurs, are the only class of vertebrates that can rival mammals with respect to their cognitive abilities. And they do so with brains that are vastly different from ours. This book chapter that was written by biopsychologists from Bochum reviews what we know about reptilian and avian brains in terms of quantitative analyses, structures, and systems. Brains evolved to produce behavior. Therefore, all anatomical and physiological information in this chapter is embedded into a functional framework and provides a rich summary on the current knowledge on archosaur brains.

 

Güntürkün, O., Stacho, M., Ströckens, F., 2017. The Brains of Reptiles and Birds. In: Kaas, J (ed.), Evolution of Nervous Systems 2e. vol. 1, pp. 171–221. Oxford: Elsevier.

 

News & Views

LEVY WALKS EMERGE IN HIGHLY MOTIVATED FORAGERS: A COMPUTER SIMULATION

Lévy walks are a property of random movements often observed among foraging animals (and humans), and they might confer some advantages for survival in an unpredictable environment, in comparison with Brownian walks. In animals with a nervous system, specific neurotransmitters associated with some psychological states could play a crucial role in controlling the occurrence of Lévy walks. We argue that incentive motivation, a dopamine-dependent process that in vertebrates makes rewards and their predictive conditioned stimuli attractive, has behavioral effects that may favor their occurrence: incentive motivation is higher when food is unpredictable and it strongly underpins foraging activity. An individual-based computer model is used to determine whether changes in incentive motivation can influence the probability that Lévy walks occur among foraging agents. Our results suggest that they are produced more often under an unpredictable than a predictable food access, and more often in strongly rather than weakly motivated foragers exposed to an unpredictable food access. Also, our motivational framework indicates that the occurrence of Lévy walks are correlated with, but not causally linked to, the number of food items consumed and the ability to store fat reserves. We conclude that Lévy walks can confer some advantages for survival in an unpredictable environment, provided that they appear in foragers with a high motivation to seek food.

 

Anselme, P., Otto, T. & Güntürkün, O. (2018). Foraging motivation favors the occurrence of Lévy walks. Behavioural Processes, 147, 58-60.

 

News & Views

Transmitter Receptors Reveal Segregation of the Arcopallium/Amygdala Complex in Pigeons

The avian arcopallium/amygdala complex is the abyss of neuroanatomists. You think that the mammalian amygdala is complex? Then come and see the bird version. Here, a bewildering number of limbic (amygdala) and premotor (arcopallium) subnuclei are interwoven on smallest conceivable space. Neuroanatomists from Düsseldorf and biopsychologists from Bochum now took the challenge to map this area by a painstaking quantitative analysis of 12 different transmitter receptor binding sites,  combined with a detailed analysis of the cyto- and myelo-architecture. Their approach not only revealed newly discovered subregions but also resulted in a novel map of this most complex area of the bird pallium and striatum. After having accomplished this, the scientists compare the receptor architecture of the subregions to their possible mammalian counterparts and come to a novel interpretation of many of the scrutinized subregions.

 

Herold, C., Paulitschek, C., Palomero-Gallagher, N., Güntürkün, O. and Zilles, K. Transmitter receptors reveal segregation of the arcopallium / amygdala complex in pigeons (Columba livia), J. Comp. Neurol., 2018, 526: 439–466.

 

News & Views

Functional Connectivity Pattern of the Internal Hippocampal Network in Pigeons

The Hippocampus is a key structure to understand cognition. Unfortunately, we still lack proper knowledge on the interaction between the different hippocampal subregions in birds. To fill this gap, Biopsychologists from Bochum conducted a resting-state fMRI experiment in awake pigeons in a 7-T MR scanner. A voxel-wise regression analysis of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations was performed in 6 distinct hippocampal areas, to establish a functional connectivity map of the avian hippocampal network. This first such study in awake birds revealed the functional backbones of information flow within the pigeon hippocampal system. In summary, these findings uncovered a structurally otherwise invisible architecture of the avian hippocampal formation by revealing the dynamic blueprints of this network.

 

Behroozi, M., Ströckens, F., Helluy, X., Stacho, M. and Güntürkün, O., Functional connectivity of the pigeon hippocampal network: An rsfMRI study, Brain, Behav. Evol., 2017, 90: 62–72.

 

News & Views

How birds outperform humans in multitasking

Birds have no cortex and mostly have small brains. How then is it possible that they can master so many complex cognitive tasks? It is known that birds have much more neurons than expected. Therefore, the avian pallium (mostly corresponding to the cortex) is characterized by small, extremely tightly packed neurons. It is conceivable that signal processing could be faster in such a brain as a result of a higher speed of propagation of activation between neighboring assemblies, resulting in faster switch times between neighboring neuronal representations of behavioral goals. Biopsychologists from Bochum and Dresden tested this idea and now indeed report that pigeons are on par with humans when a multitasking experiment demands simultaneous processing resources. However, when task conditions are slightly altered such that high speed of switching between pallial/cortical assemblies is required, pigeons show faster responses than humans. The scientists proposed that this superiority of pigeons could be a consequence of their miniaturized pallium with its high neuronal densities. Inter-neuron distances are on average 1.82 times smaller in pigeons compared to humans, possibly enabling fast activation propagation between neighboring assemblies. This then could represent a key advantage of the non-cortical avian telencephalon over a cortical forebrain.

 

Letzner, S., Güntürkün, O. and Beste, C. (2017). How birds outperform humans in multi-component behavior. Curr Biol. 25; 27(18): R996-R998.


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